Radar for Meteorological and Atmospheric Observations
With over contributors, the volume is a product of the entire community and represents an unprecedented compendium of knowledge in the field. Battan xiii I. Austin and Spiros G. Dennis and ty. Seliga, Robert G. Humphries, and James I. Hardy and Kenneth S. Williams, Vladislav Mazur, and Spiros G. Geotis II. Bringi and A. Metcalf Jeffrey Keeler and Richard E.
Availability not guaranteed and soundings can sometimes be subject to errors. National Weather Service - Classic site featuring links to imagery from all NWS Doppler radars along with regional and national composites. Features several fields including dual-polarization data and animations of up to frames. National Center for Atmospheric Research - Classic site featuring imagery from all NWS radars as well as national and regional composites.
Intellicast - National and regional radar composites courtesy of Intellicast.
Storm Prediction Center - Issues official outlooks and watches for severe weather, including thunderstorms and tornadoes. National Hurricane Center - Issues official outlooks, watches, and warnings from tropical cyclones in the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific basins. Climate Prediction Center - Issues official forecasts for the next days, days, 30 days, and beyond. SunsetWx - Check the quality of the next sunrise or sunset here! Features four-panel maps for a holistic view of the atmosphere as well as ensemble maps. Pivotal Weather - Features colorful graphics from just about every model there is.
Most models allow for point-and-click soundings. Also includes a variety of high-resolution models and severe weather parameters.
Also includes a variety of severe-weather parameters. Tropical Tidbits - Features colorful graphics and point-and-click and aerially-averaged soundings from a variety of models over several different global domains. Also includes a nice display of ensemble output, climate prediction models, and tropical cyclone-specialty models. TwisterData - The first of the generation of websites featuring colorful model maps. Geared toward severe weather forecasting. Also includes a link to a point-and-click ensemble sounding generator and historical runs.
Courtesy of the Penn State Department of Meteorology. Courtesy of the Storm Prediction Center.
A good starting point for anything severe weather related. Cloud and Fog Observation Radar. Satellite-Borne Radar.
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- Radar for Meteorological and Atmospheric axuncleethhatemp.cf | Scattering | Polarization (Waves);
Mie Coefficients.. Autocovariance Analysis. Scattered electric field Radar frequency transmitted frequency [Hz] Carrier frequency [Hz] Frequency of coherent oscillator COHO Doppler frequency Doppler shift Maximum measurable Doppler frequency Inertial frequency Nyquist frequency Pulse repetition frequency Frequency of stabilized local oscillator STALO , sampling frequency Noise figure Froude Number Antenna gain at the direction of the maximum radiation pattern main lobe in linear unit, radiation pattern of the element antenna or element pattern , gravitational acceleration Transmission gain of the RASS Directivity of antenna Antenna gain in decibel Altitude height from sea level , beam height, mountain height Magnetic field strength Scale height 7.
About This Item
This book presents the techniques and sciences of remote sensing various phenomena with radar. Remote sensing is a technique that indirectly measures target without touching it directly in a distant place. Radar is an abbreviation for RAdio Detection And Ranging, which is an electronic system that generates electromagnetic waves in the transmitter, radiates them into space via antenna, receives the scattered signal returning from the target, and measures the position, movement of the target, etc.
Usually, the same antenna is used for transmission of the electromagnetic wave and reception of the return signal. The target position is obtained according to the direction where the scattered signal returns to the antenna, and to the distance calculated by the lapse of time that the electromagnetic waves make in the round-trip between radar and target. As for the targets that scatter electromagnetic waves, various types of scatterers are known, e. In this book, the properties of scatterers such as precipitations, clouds, and fogs associated with weather, and refractive index perturbations caused by atmospheric turbulence are presented.
The former is mainly observed with meteorological radar or weather radar , and the latter with atmospheric radar.
The conceptual diagrams of meteorological radar and atmospheric radar are shown in Fig. The atmospheric radars typically make observations overhead i. Furthermore meteorological radars typically use parabolic reflector antennas whereas atmospheric radars use phased array antennas. Although the frequencies adopted for meteorological and atmospheric radars are different due to the difference of scattering mechanisms of the targets, many aspects of the basic configuration.
Fukao and K. Therefore, the common components of both radars are stated as uniformly as possible, while the uncommon ones are dealt with in the individual chapters. The upper atmosphere above the km altitude is the ionosphere where the atmosphere is partially ionized. In the ionosphere, electromagnetic waves are scattered by free electrons, and so the scattering mechanism in this region is not the same as those in other parts of the atmosphere Gordon The scattering is very close to incoherent scatter IS but extremely weakly affected via Coulomb force by ions.
The radar which utilizes IS from the ionosphere is called incoherent scatter radar or IS radar e. The IS radar is beyond the scope of this book, and we briefly state in Sect. A basic model of present pulsed meteorological radar in the microwave band was first put in practice for precipitation observations in early s. Meanwhile, prior to the practical implementation of the meteorological radars, the scattering mechanism of electromagnetic wave had already been theoretically clarified by L.
Rayleigh and G.
Book Review: Radar for Meteorological and Atmospheric Observations
Rayleigh showed that the magnitude of the backscattering intensity due to precipitation particles in the atmosphere is proportional to the 6th power of the diameter of the scatterer, and inverse proportional to the 4th power of the wavelength of the electromagnetic wave e. These theories are known as Mie scattering theorem and Rayleigh scattering theorem, and will be discussed in Sects. Ryde theoretically estimated the reflection intensity and the attenuation of microwave due to precipitation and cloud particles in the atmosphere based on these theories during and His theories became the basics of quantitative observation of weather with radar.
The relation between radar reflectivity factor and precipitation intensity and the drop size distributions of precipitation found by Marshall and Palmer became the beginning of the radar meteorology research. On the other hand, the research on the communication over the horizon OTH using the radio wave propagation through the troposphere became active in the s. Understanding about clear air turbulence CAT and the scattering mechanism in the troposphere have been rapidly advanced through this research, promoting researches regarding atmospheric remote sensing Booker and Gordon The origin of atmospheric radar is the IS radar at Jicamarca, Peru, and many atmospheric radars had been developed and constructed in the s to s.
Woodman and Guillen showed, for the first time, that the wind and the turbulence in the mesosphere and the stratosphere can be observed using the IS radar at Jicamarca. Atmospheric radars are called as mesosphericstratospheric tropospheric MST radar, stratospherictropospheric ST radar, tropospheric T radar, or boundary layer BL radar or BLR , according to the observable region for the radars.
Small-scale radars such as BLR that utilize the microwave of 1. The principle of both electromagnetic wave propagation and operation of radar does not change by the operational frequency and is common for various frequencies, although actual radar components greatly vary, depending on the frequency. In principle, longer wavelengths, i.
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Shorter wavelengths, i. Figure 1. The radar frequency bands with the main usages are shown in Table 1. In passage of the radar development, the individual radar frequency bands have been traditionally named by letters as L, S, and so on as shown in Table 1. However, the letter expression is generally obscure, and inconvenient to show the concrete frequency.
Weather: Upper-Air Observations
Therefore, in this book, we will express the operational frequency by 1. The scattering characteristics of electromagnetic wave are closely dependent upon its wavelength. It means that each scattering mechanism has a best combination with a specific wavelength band in the remote sensing of precipitation particles.
Thus, electromagnetic waves of wavelengths of several mm millimeter wave to several cm micro wave are adopted for these targets. As will be discussed in Sect. Thus, it is indispensable to evaluate the influence of the attenuation quantitatively. In the remote sensing of the atmosphere, refractive index perturbations generated from atmospheric turbulence and waves are the main source of scatterers.